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Last week, the Federal Communications Committee adopted a set of new rules designed to better shield Americans from calls to their cell phones generated through the use of an “automatic telephone dialing system.”

As of this writing, the FCC has not yet published the full text of the new rules, approved by a 3 to 2 party line vote. However, the changes described in an FCC press release and more than an hour of statements by FCC commissioners will severely impact pollsters and their subcontracted call centers that use automatic dialing systems to call prospective poll participants on cell phones.

The 1991 Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) already prohibits the use of an “automatic telephone dialing system” to contact “any telephone number assigned to a …cellular telephone service” without “express prior consent” from the party being called. That provision prohibits pollsters from dialing cell phone numbers when conducting fully automated, recorded voice polls (otherwise known as IVR or Interactive Voice Response).

The new ruling will now limit the degree to which live interviewer polls can use computer automation to call sampled cell phone numbers using an automatic dialer or otherwise known as a “predictive” dialer.  This will, undoubtedly, cause some polling firms to either stop including cell phones in their samples which will cause less accurate results, change their methodologies to more expensive methods of data collection, or stop polling all together.

Since 2004, SoonerPoll has NEVER used any type of automatic or predictive dialer to conduct its polls in the state of Oklahoma, therefore the new FCC rulings will have no impact at all on SoonerPoll or its current likely voter polling methodology.

SoonerPoll conducts ALL of its data collection for its polls in Oklahoma at its own call center in Oklahoma City and has NEVER subcontracted the data collection to call centers that use automatic or predicitive dialers.

In 2012, SoonerPoll changed its methodology to include a cell phone sample, which the new FCC ruling directly addresses, and since that time those calls have been directly dialed by live interviewers just like the landline sample has always been directly dialed by live interviewers.

“Because SoonerPoll has always collected its own data and never used any automatic dialers to collect that data, we believe this is why SoonerPoll has been the state’s most accurate pollster since its inception,” said Bill Shapard, CEO of SoonerPoll.  “We will continue to always follow the law and to improve our data collection methodologies in order to provide the most accurate polling in Oklahoma.”

 

About SoonerPoll.com

SoonerPoll is Oklahoma’s only independent, non-partisan pollster, conducting and producing more publicly released polling on the opinions of Oklahomans than all other polling firms in the state combined. Founded in 2004, SoonerPoll has been the pollster of record for one of the state’s largest newspapers, The Tulsa World, since 2005 and routinely performs polling for News 9 and News on 6, the state’s most watched television news in both Oklahoma City and Tulsa.

In 2014, Nate Silver’s 538Blog rated and ranked 337 pollsters in the nation, and SoonerPoll was rated the BEST pollster in the state of Oklahoma and in the TOP TEN percent of best pollsters in the nation.

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In what many have called the first major straw poll among Republicans of the 2016 presidential election, noted author and neurosurgeon Ben Carson won the straw poll at the Southern Republican Leadership Conference in Oklahoma City on Saturday among a crowded field of potential candidates.

Carson, who gave a stirring speech to conference attendees, won with 25.4 percent of the vote, which saw more than 64 percent of attendees participate in the straw poll.  Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker, who also spoke at the conference but has not formally announced yet, came in second with 20.5 percent of the vote, and rounding out the top three was Texas Senator Ted Cruz with 16.6 percent, who was scheduled but unable to attend due to votes back in Washington.

Top Finishers in the 2015 SRLC Conference Straw Poll
1. Ben Carson 25.4
2. Scott Walker 20.5
3. Ted Cruz 16.6
4. Chris Christie 5.3
5. Rick Perry 5.0

SoonerPoll.com, Oklahoma’s only non-partisan public opinion polling firm, was selected to conduct the straw poll among conference attendees who were issued a unique passcode upon registering at the conference and could participate anytime online through a variety of mobile devices including their own cellphone.  SoonerPoll staff was stationed throughout the Cox Convention Center during the three-day event with iPads and assisted attendees with voting.

Key Take-aways:

  1. Oklahomans, who made up the largest contingent of attendees, narrowly selected Gov. Scott Walker at their first choice overall, but Carson was able to overcome and win with supporters from other southern states who attended.
  2. Ben Carson led among attendees from Texas, beating out Texas Gov. Rick Perry and Texas Senator Ted Cruz.
  3. A plurality, 46 percent, believed national security issues was the most important issues facing the United States today, following by economic issues at 40 percent and social issues at 14 percent.
  4. Those believing economic issues were most important favored Scott Walker; those believing social issues were most important favored Ben Carson.
  5. Self-identified Tea Party supporters, who made up 42 percent of attendees, favored Ted Cruz, while self-identified Libertarians, who made up only 14 percent, favored Rand Paul, who finished 7th overall.
  6. 58 percent of attendees were either members of the National Rifle Association or the Gun Owners of America, or identified with either organization.  Ted Cruz narrowly edged out Scott Walker among these attendees.

 

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SoonerPoll, Oklahoma’s only independent, non-partisan pollster, was commissioned by the Oklahoma Council of Public Affairs (OCPA) to conduct a scientific study to measure the perceptions of Oklahoma likely voters and their opinions and perceptions regarding the subject of school choice for Oklahoma parents.

The scientific study was conducted from January 5 through January 28, 2015 and included 506 likely Oklahoma voters age 18+ selected at random from across the state to participate in the survey with a dual frame of landline telephone and cell phones.   The study carried a margin of error (MoE) of ±4.34%.

Key Findings:

  • A strong majority of Oklahoma likely voters (58.3%) would actually prefer to choose an alternative form of school for their children, such as private or parochial schools, charter schools, or homeschooling, to receive a better education than traditional public schools.
    • A plurality of respondents (43.2%) would choose to send their child to a private or parochial school in order to receive the best education.
    • Younger Oklahoma voters, those under the age of 45, were considerably less likely to want to choose a traditional public school for their children to receive the best education. Less than one third of these individuals would choose to send their children to a traditional public school.
    • Additionally, voters residing in the Tulsa and Oklahoma City metropolitan areas were also much less likely to choose to send their children to a traditional public school in order to receive the best education.  Over half of the voters for both MSA’s would choose a private or parochial school if given the opportunity.
  • Over half of Oklahoma likely voters (56.2%) are in favor of charter schools, which control their own budget, staff, and curriculum, and are exempt from many existing public school regulations.
    • In fact, more than 1 in 4 voters (27.4%) “Strongly Favor” the use of public charter schools.
    • Voters in the Oklahoma City and Tulsa MSA’s favored charter schools by 10 or more points compared to voters throughout the rest of the state.
  • Almost half of Oklahoma likely voters (49.6%) were in favor of a “parent trigger” policy that would allow parents of children at a low-performing performing public school to petition for some form of accountability action to take place.
    • Of Oklahoma voters between the ages of 25 and 44, those adults most likely to have school-age children of their own, a large majority (57.7%) indicated they were in favor of a “parent trigger” policy.
  • A majority of Oklahoma likely voters (53.9%) stated they were in favor of a “school voucher” system, where parents are given the option to send their child to any school of their choosing.
    • Almost 1 in 3 Oklahoma voters indicated that they “Strongly Favor” the use of a “school voucher” system.
  • An even greater percentage of Oklahoma voters (62.4%) believed a “tax-credit scholarship” system would be favorable, where individuals and businesses receive tax benefits for contributing money to non-profits that distribute private school scholarships.
    • While a majority of all parties favored this system, a much higher percentage of Republicans (68.5%) and Independents (66.3%) favored a “tax-credit scholarship” system than Democrats (53.9%).
  • The largest number of voters (63.9%) actually favored the individual tax-credit system, which gives parents tax relief for money they spend on educational expenses, i.e. private school tuition, tutoring, online learning, etc.
    • Independents (80.4%) and Republicans (67.7%) were considerably more likely to favor the individual tax-credit system than Democrats (56%).
  • Another majority of Oklahoma voters (55.6%) indicated they would favor an “education savings account,” or ESA, system, where parents receive a payment into a government-authorized savings account with restricted, but multiple uses for their children’s’ education.
    • Over 2/3 of all Oklahoma voters under the age of 45 indicated they were in favor of an ESA system of school choice.
  • A very large percentage of Oklahoma voters (68.2%) agreed that ESAs should be available to all families, regardless of incomes and special needs.
    • There was not a single significant sub-group of individuals who did not agree that ESAs should be available to every family.
  • Lastly, after hearing arguments for and against educational choice programs, over half of Oklahoma likely voters (52.5%) indicated they were for a parent’s power to choose a school that best works for their child.
    • More than one third of Oklahoma voters (36.8%) indicated they were “Strongly for the power of choice” when it came to letting parents decide which school would best fit their child’s education.
    • 58.6% of Republicans and 63% of Independents believed in a parent’s power to choose the best education for their child, compared to 42.9% of Democrats, who were more inclined to believe that school choice robs public schools of needed funds.

 

About the Poll

The poll of 506 likely voters in Oklahoma was conducted January 5-22, 2015 by live interviewer and included 113 cellphone and 349 landline users. The margin of error is plus or minus 4.34 percentage points, and was commissioned by the Oklahoma Council for Public Affairs (OCPA).

Poll results were weighted by age and congressional district, and stratified by a model of Oklahoma likely voters statewide. This poll conforms to the Standards of Disclosure of the National Council on Public Polls. A complete description of the methodology can be found here.

The poll’s Call Disposition and Rate Calculation report can be viewed here.

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Seven in ten Oklahomans support incentives, support crosses all party lines and congressional districts

A poll conducted last month finds more than 70-percent of Oklahoman likely voters support tax incentives that create new investment or new jobs. The SoonerPoll results show that the support crosses all party lines and is present in all five congressional districts.

“The results are clear: Oklahomans support economic development incentives,” said State Chamber of Oklahoma President & CEO Fred Morgan. “This isn’t a partisan issue, it’s a jobs issue and Oklahomans overwhelmingly support policies that create jobs.”

The poll of more than 400 Oklahomans between December 8th and 19th shows 70.5% either strongly support or somewhat support the use of tax incentives that create new investment in Oklahoma. When asked about tax incentives that create jobs in Oklahoma, the margin strongly or somewhat supporting jumps to 76.9%. The poll has a margin of error of +/- 4.88%.

Question Wording and Topline

Do you SUPPORT or OPPOSE the use of tax incentives that create new investment in Oklahoma?

  1. Strongly support                                                                                                                         43.0
  2. Somewhat support                                                                                                                      27.5
  3. Don’t know/no opinion                                                                                                                 8.1
  4. Somewhat oppose                                                                                                                      10.3
  5. Strongly oppose                                                                                                                          11.1

Do you SUPPORT or OPPOSE the use of tax incentives that create new jobs in Oklahoma?

  1. Strongly support                                                                                                                         50.5
  2. Somewhat support                                                                                                                      26.4
  3. Don’t know/no opinion                                                                                                                 6.3
  4. Somewhat oppose                                                                                                                        7.6
  5. Strongly oppose                                                                                                                            9.2

“This is a significant poll with unambiguous results,” said Bill Shapard, founder of SoonerPoll. “When you see poll results like this, there can be no doubt about where Oklahomans stand on an issue.”

The fact that Oklahomans support tax incentives that create new investment and jobs is no surprise to those whose job it is to grow and attract jobs to communities around the state.

“The most important thing for decision-makers to think about when looking at tax credits is whether this will affect our competitiveness with surrounding states,” said Brent Kisling, chairman of the Oklahoma Economic Development Council and the Executive Director of the Enid Regional Development Alliance. “After a decade in the economic development field, I know jobs and capital investment are essential to making sure we have the resources needed for all aspects of government.”

 

About the Poll

The poll of 403 likely voters in Oklahoma was conducted Dec 8-19, 2014 by SoonerPoll.com and commissioned by the State Chamber of Oklahoma.  The probability sample included 88 cellphone and 318 landline users. The margin of error is plus or minus 4.88 percentage points.

Poll results were weighted by age and congressional district, stratified by Oklahoma likely voters statewide. This poll conforms to the Standards of Disclosure of the National Council on Public Polls. A complete description of the methodology can be found here.

The poll’s Call Disposition and Rate Calculation report can be viewed here.

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By RANDY KREHBIEL World Staff Writer

More than 90 percent of Oklahomans believe racism exists in every community, but almost 80 percent believe it does not prevent people from achieving “the American Dream,” according to a survey released Wednesday by SoonerPoll of Oklahoma City.

“What struck me was the duality of opinions on racism,” said SoonerPoll President Bill Shapard. “People say there is racism, but they still believe overwhelmingly in the American Dream.

“Oklahomans are optimists,” he said.

The survey asked eight questions directly related to race. In general, the responses reflected a belief that racism is a factor in American life but not a decisive one.

They also suggested a relatively high threshold for identifying actions or words as racist.

“Racism is only going to be identified as the worst of the worst,” said Shapard.

The survey asked respondents to classify each of four quotes as “racist,” “inappropriate” or “neither racist nor inappropriate.” The quotes were authentic but the people who said them were not identified to those being surveyed.

Continued – Click here to read the entire Tulsa World article

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SoonerPoll.com, Oklahoma’s public opinion pollster, asked these questions of Oklahoma likely voters as part of the SoonerPoll Quarterly poll. The scientific study was conducted from December 8-19, 2014 with 403 likely Oklahoma voters selected at random statewide from a dual frame of both landline telephone and cell phones. The sample was weighted by age and congressional district, then stratified using a model of likely voters.

The sample reflected the traditional demographical profile of the Oklahoma likely voter with roughly half of respondents identifying as conservative and attending religious services once or more per week.  The study has a Margin of Error (MoE) of ± 4.88 percent.

Here are the key take-aways:

  • An overwhelming majority of Oklahomans (91%) believe that racists of every color still exist today in every community in America.  We asked whether respondents agreed or disagreed with the statement “There are racists in every community in America and of every color.”
    • Almost three quarters (71.5%) of Oklahomans strongly agreed with this statement, with only 7.1% disagreeing strongly or somewhat.
    • Oklahomans statistically believe that racism is still very prevalent in America today, regardless of sex, age, race, or party affiliation.  This seems to be an issue that almost all Oklahomans agree upon.
  • Another overwhelming number of Oklahomans (88.9%) believe that it is still possible to achieve the American Dream in America today, regardless of race or skin color.  Apparently, even though Oklahomans believe racists still exist in every community and of every color, they do not believe this to be a reason for an individual to not be able to accomplish the American Dream today.
    • While a majority of Oklahoma voters from every political party agreed with this premise, Democrats were considerably less likely to strongly agree than both Republicans and Independents (57.3% of Democrats compared to 70.1% of Independents and 79.5% of Republicans).
  • A majority of Oklahomans (54.3%) believe that race relations in America have become worse under President Obama’s tenure as President than before his presidency in the last 20 years, with over one third (36.9%) believing it to be “Much worse”.  Only 15.4% of Oklahomans believe race relations have become better.
    • Oklahoma Republicans were considerably more likely to believe that race relations in America had become considerably worse since Obama’s tenure, compared to the opinions of both Democrats and Independents. (50.2% of Republicans said “Much worse,” compared to 21.6% of Democrats and 37.3% of Independents)
    • Men were also much more likely to respond “Much worse” to this question (43.6%) compared to women (31.1%).
  • Almost two thirds (62.8%) of Oklahomans believe that any person that resists while being arrested by the police should expect their life to be in danger, regardless of race, age, sex, or religion, which is the common thread between the Mike Brown and Eric Garner cases.
  • Republicans were considerably more likely to agree with this statement than both Democrats and Independents (72.4% of Republicans agreed compared to 51.7% of Democrats and 64.3% of Independents).
  • Just over one quarter (27.5%) of Democrats “Strongly disagree” with this statement, compared to 19.6% of Independents and only 7.2% of Republicans.
  • Men were also much more likely to “Strongly agree” with this statement (56.8%) compared to women (38.2%).

To conclude the questions regarding racial issues, SoonerPoll’s respondents were read a series of four statements, then asked whether they consider the statement to be a racist statement, just an inappropriate statement, or a statement that is neither racist nor inappropriate, meaning they did not see anything wrong with that statement being made.  SoonerPoll chose statements made by people currently in the news, but did not reveal to any respondents the individuals who actually made those statements.  The statements used for this study were also chosen due to the fact that none of the statements directly used any pejoratives, and the statements had been accused of actually being racist comments by the media and also members of the opposite political party.  SoonerPoll chose to use two statements made by Democrats and two statements made by Republicans.

  • For the most part, Oklahomans seem to reserve calling something “racist” for statements considerably more intolerable and intransigent than the four statements selected.

“Are we a nation that tolerates the hypocrisy of a system where workers who pick our fruit and make our beds never have a chance to get right with the law?” – President Barack Obama

  • Just over one third (34.1%) of Oklahomans considered this to be an inappropriate statement, with only 11.4% declaring it to be a racist statement.
    • Democrats (14.3%) and Independents (16.3%) were about twice as likely to consider this to be a racist statement as Republicans (7.7%).
    • Women (14.5%) were also more likely than men (7.8%) to consider this statement to be racist.

“There are still generations of people, older people, who were born and bred and marinated in prejudice and racism and they just have to die.” – Oprah Winfrey

  • Of the four statements read to respondents, this statement was considered the most racist (26.5%) and also the most inappropriate (55.4%).
    • Party affiliation did not seem to be a significant factor in whether this statement was believed to be racist, although fewer Democrats believed this statement to be inappropriate than Republicans or Independents (46.6% of Democrats compared to 59.7% of Republicans and 69.8% of Independents).

“May I suggest the number one thing holding black folks back today is a bad attitude?  The best thing black folks can do today to change their attitude is to move past the victim mentality.  Yes, many evil things were done to black people in the past, but that was in the past.  We should never abandon history, but to dwell on the evils of the past and not move on is an attitude killer.” – (R) Charlie Meadows, OCPAC

  • This statement was considered to be neither racist nor inappropriate by the largest majority of Oklahomans (57.9%).
    • A majority of respondents from all three political parties believed this statement to be neither inappropriate nor racist. However, only half (50.6%) of Democrats indicated they felt this way, while almost two thirds of both Republicans (63.2%) and Independents (62.8%) shared this belief.
    • The only demographic stating this to be a racist comment in majority were those who considered themselves “Very liberal”. 68.1% believed this to be a racist statement, while those from “Somewhat liberal” to “Very conservative” were all in a majority agreement the statement above was neither racist nor inappropriate.
    • Men (65.5%) were also much more likely than women (51.3%) to consider this statement neither racist nor inappropriate.

“We deserve answers to this.  President Obama’s shuck and jive shtick with these Benghazi lies must end.” – Sarah Palin

  • Of the four statements tested, this statement actually gathered the most mixed response, with a quarter of respondents (24.2%) deeming it to be a racist remark, one third (33.2%) calling it just inappropriate, and just over a third (36.4%) saying it was neither racist nor inappropriate.
    • Democrats (30.2%) were considerably more likely to consider this statement to be racist, while Republicans (46.2%) were the most likely to believe it to be neither racist nor inappropriate.
    • Men (42.7%) were much more likely to view nothing wrong with the statement, whereas the largest percentage of women (38.0%) found the statement to be just inappropriate.

 

About the Poll

The poll of 403 likely voters in Oklahoma was commissioned and conducted Dec 8-19, 2014 by SoonerPoll.com and included 88 cellphone and 318 landline users. The margin of error is plus or minus 4.88 percentage points.

Poll results were weighted by age and congressional district, stratified by Oklahoma likely voters statewide. This poll conforms to the Standards of Disclosure of the National Council on Public Polls. A complete description of the methodology can be found here.

The poll’s Call Disposition and Rate Calculation report can be viewed here.

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By BILL SHERMAN World Religion Writer

Tensions have increased this year between Islam, the fastest-growing religion on the planet, now embraced by a quarter of mankind, and Oklahoma’s largely Christian population.

The rise of the violently anti-Christian Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, anti-Muslim forums around the state by an Oklahoma lawmaker and a beheading in Moore all have contributed to what some Tulsa Muslims say is the worst environment they have faced.

A Sooner Poll conducted last month shows that a majority of Oklahomans have a negative impression of Islam, and a Pew pollin September shows 50 percent of Americans believe Islam is more likely than other religions to inspire violence, a sharp increase since February, when 38 percent thought so.

“We didn’t feel threatened this much after 9/11,” said Omer Akdeniz, a Turkish Muslim businessman in Broken Arrow who has been in the United States for 15 years.

Continued – Click here to read the entire Tulsa World article

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MuslimPollBy RANDY KREHBIEL World Staff Writer

Oklahoma is not exactly known as friendly territory for Islam, but residents say Muslims should have the freedom to worship as they choose.

In the most recent Oklahoma Poll, almost 80 percent said Muslims should enjoy the same religious freedoms as other Americans, and only 15 percent disagreed.

The poll, which surveyed 404 likely voters statewide, also found that more than half — 54 percent — viewed Islam unfavorably, and 35 percent were very unfavorably disposed toward it. Those percentages rose above 60 percent for Republicans and those who identified themselves as “very conservative,” and among married women.

Knowing a Muslim did not improve opinions of the religion. If anything, those who said they knew at least one Muslim were less likely to approve of Islam.

And yet, despite their disapproval, Oklahomans are accepting of Muslims in their midst.

“If you read the Constitution, the Constitution plainly mentions any person can worship freely, no matter whether they are Muslim, Catholic, Buddhist, whatever,” said Jerry Lane of Muskogee.

Continued – Click here to read the entire Tulsa World article

 

About the Oklahoma Poll

The poll of 404 likely voters registered in Oklahoma was conducted Oct. 25-29 by SoonerPoll.com and included 136 cellphone and 268 landline users. The poll was sponsored by the Tulsa World. The margin of error is plus or minus 4.87 percentage points.

Poll results were weighted by age, gender and congressional district, stratified by Oklahoma likely voters statewide. This poll conforms to the Standards of Disclosure of the National Council on Public Polls. A complete description of the methodology can be found here.

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2014-11-16 ne-polla1graphicBy RANDY KREHBIEL World Staff Writer

Only one-third of Oklahomans believe the state’s A-F school grading system accurately reflects their own public schools’ performance.

The latest Oklahoma Poll, which surveyed 404 likely voters statewide, found consistent responses to the question of whether the grades assigned local schools “accurately reflect the quality of education in these schools.” By a ratio of 2-to-1, Republicans and Democrats, liberals and conservatives, all said no.

Geography provided one notable exception to the pattern. Fully two-thirds of Tulsa-area respondents panned the A-F grades, compared to just about half in the rest of the state.

Paula Haight, a retired Tulsa Public Schools teacher who participated in the survey, said, “We have to have some way of accountability, however the A-F system does not reflect … the influence teachers have on students.”

Introduced three years ago, the A-F system assigns a single letter grade to every school in the state based on several factors. Critics say the formula is unfair and perhaps even intentionally biased to make public schools look bad.

This year, scores from several tests that are components of the formula were excluded, adding to questions about A-F’s validity.

Continued – Click here to read the entire Tulsa World article

 

About the Oklahoma Poll

The poll of 404 likely voters registered in Oklahoma was conducted Oct. 25-29 by SoonerPoll.com and included 136 cellphone and 268 landline users. The poll was sponsored by the Tulsa World. The margin of error is plus or minus 4.87 percentage points.

Poll results were weighted by age, gender and congressional district, stratified by Oklahoma likely voters statewide. This poll conforms to the Standards of Disclosure of the National Council on Public Polls. A complete description of the methodology can be found here.

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Same-sexTWMore than half of respondents to the survey oppose.

By RANDY KREHBIEL World Staff Writer

Same-sex marriage may be more acceptable to Oklahomans than it was a decade ago, but the most recent Oklahoma Poll indicates that a large majority still rejects it.

More than half the 404 likely voters surveyed said they “strongly oppose” same-sex marriage despite recent court decisions that have made it legal in Oklahoma. Another 10 percent said they “somewhat oppose” it.

Just under 30 percent said they support marriage equality, with 9 percent undecided.

“We’re getting where a small group of people are wanting to run things their way above the other people,” said Jerry Lane of Muskogee. “What about the rights of the other people who live in this country? After we voted (against same-sex marriage) in 2004, it was all struck down by a minority of people.

“It’s federal government intrusion. If you look back in history, federal government wouldn’t hardly interfere with states, but now they are.”

In 2004, Oklahomans voted more than 3 to 1 in favor of a constitutional amendment defining marriage as the union of one man and one woman.

Continued – Click here to read the entire Tulsa World article

 

About the Oklahoma Poll

The poll of 404 likely voters registered in Oklahoma was conducted Oct. 25-29 by SoonerPoll.com and included 136 cellphone and 268 landline users. The poll was sponsored by the Tulsa World. The margin of error is plus or minus 4.87 percentage points.

Poll results were weighted by age, gender and congressional district, stratified by Oklahoma likely voters statewide. This poll conforms to the Standards of Disclosure of the National Council on Public Polls. A complete description of the methodology can be found here.

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